There is a close interdependence and interrelationship between vegetation and wildlife in a given area. It is because forests and grasslands are the main habitats of animals. Animals live where food is available. They ire also adapted to climate and other conditions prevailing in a given region. Because of this adaptation changes in environment may also bring about changes in animal life leading to migration and evolution of new species.
Mountain Animals : Animals living in forests on mountains vary according to altitude as does vegetation. There are grasslands known as meadows in forests above tree line found on mountains. These meadows support a wide variety of animals like shrew, tapir, markhor and ibex (a wild goat found in Himalayas in Laddakh), gour or Indian bison in Assam, and yak, an ox-like Tibetan mammal. All of these animals are domesticated in mountain areas and are prized for their wool, hides and some even for meat. Other animals found on lower slopes of mountains where trees are found a variety of colourful birds, eagles and other birds of prey are also found. In the lower forested slopes bears, deer, mink and stouts are found. In snowcapped Western Himalayas are found animals like snow leopard, insects, spiders and ice worms. Pandas are also found on the Nepalese side of forests.
Tropical Rain forests: These provide enough food and shelter to animals. It is reported that about 30 million species of animals in tropical rain forests have not been identified so far. These forests have plentiful tree living animals as well as at ground level. Eagles, tree frogs, frogs, flying dragons, monkeys, gibbons. At the ground level are jaguars, tapirs. In the Himalayan rain forests in Assam is found the one-homed rhinoceros. It is found nowhere in the world. Near the water courses in the Western Ghat rain forests are also found crocodiles and turtles.
In the Deciduous forests in India are found lions in the Gir forest in Gujarat. Other animals include cheetah, musk deer and bears. Elephants like to rush through thickets and clumps of trees in group to make a path for themselves. The spotted deer and other types of deer and many monkeys live in these forests. In temperate regions, the animals of deciduous forests include bears, deer, wolves, porcupires, badgers opossums and wildbears. Near the water courses are found frogs, musk rats, salamanders, turtles. A great number of birds live in bushes or on trees. Famous among Indian forest birds are parakes pigeons, cranes, hombills and sun birds. In Kerala, elephants are also found in these forests. Elephant also live in Himalayan forests in Assam.
Animals of the deserts have special bodies and ways of life that helps them to survive under harsh conditions. In Western Rajasthan black buck, the Great Indian bustard and the Indian gazelle are found. Many types of insects, lizards, vipers, scorpions and tortoises, fox and the camel, typical of many other deserts, are also found in India. The light coloured skin of desert dwellers helps them to reflect sunlight and keep cool. Examples are foxes and beautiful pin-tail sandgrouse and many vipers. Burrowing animals are also adapted to deserts. Tortoises, lizards, squirrels, frogs and a variety of snails dig holes underground or find habitats under rock-crevices or under desert bushes. These animals are also found in mainly arid areas of Rajasthan, Punjab, Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh. World famous Indian King Cobra or Naja Naja (Naga Raja) and slender nosed crocodiles escape the midday heat by retreating into burrows. The Indian Cobra has spectacle like markings on its hood.