Spatial Distribution of Industries
The spatial distribution involves specific location and general distribution of industry. We have already studied the factors that affect location of industries. When analysing these factors it will be observed that geographic area or space has two chief aspects in the case of industry Firstly, major industries all over the world have come to be concentrated in certain regions or geographic areas. The concentration of industries in regions is mainly on account of availability of raw materials and markets around. Inter-relations, interactions and interdependence produce many benefits including on account of influence of transport. Industrial regions can be regarded as functional units which improve the prospects of industry. Secondly, aspect of spatial distribution is concerned with location of specific industries. We will study some major industries later in this chapter. Here we will first examine major industrial regions of India.
Major Industrial Regions
Indias major industries are concentrated in five main industrial regions — Northern Region, North Eastern Region, Southern Region, Western Region and Central Region.
(a) Northern Industrial Region: It includes Ganga and Yamuna river valley and industries located in Delhi, Kanpur, Varanasi, Allahabad, Lucknow, Ludhiana, Sonepat, Amritsar. Important industries located in this region are cotton and silk textiles, fertilizers, bicycle, sports goods, sugar, chemicals, leather, wool and rubber goods. In recent years car and watch assembly and manufacturing have also developed.
(b) North-Eastern Industrial Region: This zone includes the famous Damodar Valley Industrial belt including Hoogly and Kolkata.
Main industries developed in this region include locomotive, iron and steel, chemicals, aluminium, metallurgical, cement, fertilizers, glass, silk and paper. The region offers many advantages of availability of raw material, coal, hydel power, cheap and abundant skilled labour. The region has also excellent rail, road and transport facilities.
(c) Western Industrial Region : It included the Maharashtra and Gujarat industrial belt. Among important industries include cotton textiles, fertilizers, petrochemicals, oil refineries, cement. Famous industrial centres are Mumbai, Pune, Vadadora, Ahmedabad, Surat, Bhavanagar, Pimpri, Kalyan and a number ‘of other recently developed areas.
The region also offers excellent rail, road, air and shipping transport facilities. There is also large networks of pipelines carrying gas and even petroleum.
(d) Southern Region : The industrial centres of Bangalore, Chennai, Madurai, Coimbatore, Hyderabad are included in this region. Chief industries include iron and steel, like at Badravali and Salem,, telephone, machine tools, computer software, railway coaches, automobiles, watches, electricals and electronics. In this belt climate, port facilities including raw materials are chief factors responsible for location of industries on this region.
(e) Central Industrial Region : Its chief advantage is its location adjacent to North-Eastern Industrial Region. The iron and steel industry at Bhilai, other industries at Gwalior, Jabalpur, Bhopal, Indore and Nagpur are included in this region. Among important industries include cement, paper, iron and steel, heavy chemicals, textiles and automobiles.