Present Industrial Structure of India

Industrial structure of India can broadly be classified into two sectors:

Public sector and Private sector.

(A) Public Sector. All those companies which are owned, controlled and managed by the government (central government, state governments or government institutions) are called public sector enterprises.

There are three main forms of public sector enterprises in India. They are
1)Departmental enterprises. These enterprises are fully owned and managed by the government as its department. For instance, Railway department; Post and Telegraph department etc.
2)Public Sector Joint Stock Companies. Since most of the shares of these companies are purchased by the government, their ownership and control also lie in government’s hands. For example, Steel Authority of India (SAIL); Sindri Fertiliser Company; Indian Oil Corporation; Hindustan Machine Tools Ltd. (HMT); Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd. (BHEL) etc.
3) Statutory Corporations. They are established with the sanction of parliament and generally work in accordance with governmlnt policies. For example, Damodar Valley Corporation; LIC; Industrial Finance Corporation; Reserve Bank of India etc.

(B) Private Sector. All enterprises which are owned and controlled by the private people are known as private sector enterprises.

Private sector enterprises can further be classified into four main categories. They are:
(i) Non-factory Manufacturing Units. They include two types of units:
(a) Cottage industries. Rural cottage industries and urban cottage industries.
(b) Tiny Units. They are so small that they cannot be treated as factories.
(ii) FERA Companies. FERA companies are those enterprises which deal with substantial amounts of foreign exchange and operate subject to the provisions of the Foreign Exchange Regulation Act.
(iii) MRTP Companies. They are very large companies which operate subject to the provisions of the Monopolies and Restrictive Trade Practices Act.
(iv) Other Private Companies.

Among those four categories non-factory manufacturing units (i.e. cottage and tiny units) have the highest contribution to India’s national income. Thereafter comes the contribution of other private companies, MRTP companies and FERA companies.

Importance of Public Sector

(i) They help in controlling monopoly and concentration of economic power and achieving the goal of social justice.
(ii) They can act as an important instrument for the development of backward regions.
(iii) They can take up the activities where gestation period is long and profitability is low
(iv) They are helpful in creating more employment opportunities.
(v) It is important to keep strategic sectors like defence, insurance, banking, power etc. under public control.
(vi) By reinvesting the profits, they can accelerate the rate of economic growth.

Factors which Hamper Communal Harmony and Social Cohesion in India

The British, in order to perpetuate their rule in India followed policies which were detrimental to the communal harmony and cohesion in the country. The English realised that they could consolidate their power in India only by keeping the people divided. ‘Divide and Rule’ was their policy and in this they succeeded admirably. They could not tolerate the growth of spirit of communal harmony. In order to create communal bitterness, they passed the Morley Minto Reforms 1909, the Government of India Act 1919, the Government of India Act of 1935, and the Communal Award of 1935. These legislative measures divided the seats in legislatures on communal basis. They reserved separate seats for the Muslims, Sikhs, Christians, Anglo Indians, Zamindars etc. They divided different communities into water tight compartments. Each community looked after its own interest alone.

Communal bickerings and bitterness produced nothing else but fear, mistrust, jealousy and suspicion in the minds of people belonging to the different religions, castes and creeds. The disruption of communal harmony during the British rule was the main cause of partition of India. The country was divided on communal basis into India and Pakistan in 1947.

The Government of independent India realised that communal harmony and cohesion were essential for the unity of the country. The new Constitution of India has abolished the system of separate and communal electorate and the reservation of government jobs on the basis of religion. It has given the right to equality right to freedom of religion and personal freedom. It has given social and cultural rights to minorities. It was realised that three things were essential to promote communal harmony and cohesion— (1) love of humanity (2) the spirit of toleration (3) rational thinking or scientific outlook.

The love of humanity is the heritage of India. It was preached by the Buddha and put into practice by Emperor Ashoka the Great. Guru Nank Dev, Kabir and many other saints preached brotherhood of mankind. In the modern times, Gandhiji taught love for mankind. Mutual goodwill and cohesion among the various communities is possible only in a homogeneous, well-knit compact society. The Hindus, Muslims, the Sikhs, Christians and other communities are the members of a joint family. Let all these communities live in an atmosphere of amity, goodwill, brotherhood and peace. India believes in toleration in the midst of diversity India can have internal as well as external security if all the communities realise their responsibility to the motherland. The logic of rational or scientific thinking should drive all the Indians into each other’s arms. The scientific spirit is the bitterest foe of superstitions, religious fanaticism, class prejudices, false distinctions of birth, caste or creed. The railways, ships, cars, buses, aeroplanes, telephones, televisions etc. have brought the people of different communities closer. In the name of science, let all the communities in India join hands and work for the welfare and good of the nation. The disruptive tendencies in the past did much harm to the country. The bitter lesson of the history should not be forgotten.

Factors which hamper Communal Harmony and Social Cohesion

1. Communal feelings : Some anti-social elements are always on the look out to find an opportunity to incite communal feelings of the people. Small incidents sometimes lead to bloody riots and destruction. The Government tries its best to put down such activities with iron hand but they continue to raise their ugly head. The communal hatred poses a great danger to national unity. We must develop a spirit of toleration among our children. All the communities must learn to live together in a spirit of co-operation.

2. Narrow linguistic outlook: In a large country the people speak different languages. There is no harm if the people love their regional languages and promote their growth. But sometimes language differences create conflicts. We should love to study all the languages and enjoy their literature, dramas, novels and poetry It will contribute to the spirit of national unity

3. Casteism: Narrow caste considerations also hamper national integration. Some people consider themselves belonging to high castes and hate people belonging to low castes. It is against the true spirit of democracy and is an inhuman practice. Each caste should look for the higher interests of the country as a whole. We must develop a feeling of brotherhood of mankind. Caste distinctions have no place in the modern society.

Food Security in India

Food security means Freedom from Hunger. Food is the basic need of people all over the world. Like in India, world’s food supply also varies from year to year. There are famines and diseases when there are food shortages. Millions of people die every year due to starvation. Some parts of Africa suffered worst ever food crisis in 2002.

The World Food Summit 1996 focused on some selected programmes for food security These included not only creating reserve stocks of cereal grains but also calorie and protein deficiency in food. Most malnutrition is not on account of food shortages but lack of adequate protein-calorie mix. According to UN estimates one-fifth of world’s population suffer from protein-calorie malnutrition. Therefore, any programme of food security must take into account nutrition.

According to UN estimates a moderately active man of average weight (55 Kg) needs about 3000 calories a day, women need less about 2200. In developing countries daily calorie consumption is much below 2000. Realizing this need the Government of India has evolved a policy of creation of buffer stocks of cereal grains as well as improving the food and nutrition intake specially among women and children.

The National Nutrition Policy of the Government of India is also in existence.The Food and Nutrition Board was set up and placed under the Department of Women and Child Development in April, 1993. The Board has set up Community Nutrition and Extension units in 29 States and Union Territories. These units are playing an important role in analysis and standardisation of food needs of the people.

Another scheme under the Department of Rural Development was launched in 2000-2001. Under this scheme rural people above 65 years of age not getting pension can be provided 10 kg of food grains per person per month free of cast. Wheat and rice are two chief food grains supplied under this scheme. About 1.62 lath tonnes of food grains had been allocated during 2001 for this scheme.

Food grains held in Buffer stocks to meet emergency food need is an important aspect o food security. These stocks are held by Food Corporation of India under the Central Pool and by State Agencies. In March 2001 about 450 lakh tonnes of food grains (wheat and rice) had been held in buffer stocks as against 290 lakh tonnes in 2000.
“With the signing of WTO related protocols India will also become a part of Global Food Security programme under which marketing infrastructure and storage are also planned to be promoted. The world’s reserves consist of individual reserves of major exporting countries. Each country while holding its own reserves shares food resources with other countries during times of crisis. This helps to combat hunger and malnutrition.
Another important aspect of global food’ security is to reduce demand for food grains through increasing the amount of proteins and calories for human consumption. Developing new sources of food like soyabeans and other crops which can be source of inexpensive proteins are also being considered.

Types of Soils in India

Types of Soils on The Basis of Formation

Many different classifications of soils are followed in different countries. Because of a great variety a meaningful classification of soils would involve explaining the system adopted by different countries However, all these types of soils can be divided into three broad groups on the basis of formation — Zonal, Intrazonal and Azonal.

Zonal: These soils are formed in-situ or directly from underlying rock. It shows the influence of climate as a major soil forming factor. They are formed on well drained soils and include Polar desert soils, Podzols (ash-grey coloured found in high altitude coniferous forest belt), Brown Earths, Prairie Soils, Chernozem (similar to black soil), Brown and Grey semi-arid soil, Gurmusols, Red Earths and Laterite soils.

Intrazonal Soil : These are well developed soils formed where local factors are dominant. Under this category are included soils found in marshes, swamps, deserts and are characterized by excess salinity and alkalinity

Azonal Soils : These are known as transported soils. They lack time for development and have poorly developed profile. Among the types included in this group are alluvial soils, sandy soils and lithosols.

Soils of India

India has a variety of climates and relief features. The whole landmass is also intersected by a numhe of rivers. Therefore soils at different locations differ in their thickness as well as in composition. The soils of India can be divided into following chief categories which generally follow the classification done by the Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR).

1. Alluvial Soils

Alluvium is a water borne sediment. The fine silt brought down by rivers from the mountain region is deposited by rivers when they overflow their banks during floods. The area where these sediments are deposited is known as Flood Plain. This soil is replenished by rivers almost every year It is a very fertile soil though low in nitrogen content. This type of soil is found in the Great Northern Plains, the Ganga Brahmaputra delta and in the coastal plains.

The new alluvium soils are locally called khadar and relatively old and coarse alluvium are known as bangar.

2. Black Soils

A world level chernozem soils associated with Steppe region are also known as Black soils. In India these soils are of volcanic origin and are also called black cotton soil. It is developed in-situ on basaltic rock. It has capacity to retain moisture because it swells when wetted and shrinks when dried. This characteristic also causes wide cracks in the soil. This soil is very suitable for growing cotton. It is found in hot and dry areas of Deccan plateau particularly in the Deccan Trap. Other areas include Maharashtra, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. These soils are locally called regur soils.

3. Red and Yellow Soils

These are reddish in colour and relatively sandy soils formed as a result
break up of the crystalline igneous rock. The presence of iron oxides in the soil is largely responsible for reddish colour. Reddish soils are found in Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Orissa, Yellowish colour soils occur in Orissa, Madhya Pradesh and southern parts of Gangetic plains. These soils are mostly cultivated during rainy season. Wheat, millets, coarse grains, potatoes and cotton are grown in these soils.

4. Laterite Soils
They are called hard-baked soils of tropical region. Due to hot-wet conditions, the nutrient contents of the soil are washed away leaving behind hydrated oxides of iron and aluminium. In India leaching on high level plateaus and hills receiving high rainfall takes place. These soils are more acidic but can be made more fertile with the help of fertilizers. They are also known as blocky soils because the blocks o these soils are used for construction of houses. The soils occur in rainy areas of southern Maharashtra and Chhotanagpur plateau.

5. Sandy Soils

These soils have high concentration of calcium downward and low humus content. They are generally not fit for agriculture and are found in western Rajasthan. Wind blown loess are also counted among these soils. They are also called Arid soils because of scarcity of rainfall.

6. Mountain Soils

These are found in Himalayan region in Kashmir and in the North-East. They are rich in iron but deficient in lime.

Other important soil types in India include Peaty Soils which have abundant organic matter making these soils rich in humus. These soils are found in northern parts of Uttaranchal in Almora, coastal areas of West Bengal, Orissa, northern parts of Bihar and Tamil Nadu. In areas of high rainfall forest soils rich in humus but low in salts are found. However since parent rock contains variety of salts, these soils are also made fit for agriculture.

Basic Unity of India

Inspite of the above mentioned bewildering diversity in the race, religion, language and culture of the people, there is a deep underlying fundamental unity which the superficial observer cannot see. There is unity in this diversity—a unity far more clearly apparent than that produced by geographical isolation or by political suzerainty—a unity that transcends the innumerable diversities of blood, colour, language, dress, manners and sects”. Havel remarks, lndia whether regarded as from the physical or intellectual standpoint, is herself the great example of the doctrine of the one.

Geographical Unity

The geographical unity of India is as ancient as the Puranas. There is an undercurrent of unity of India as one unit from the Himalayas in the North to Kanya Kumari in the South. Since the Vedic Age, all this land sorrounded by the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea and separated from Asia by the Himalayas has formed our country Dakshanapatha, the Deccan was one of the main natural divisions into which the country was divided. Emphasizing the fundamental unity of India, Dr. Radha M. Kumud Mukerjee writes, “Neither the spread of Graeco-Roman institutions, nor the empires of Augustus Charlemagne and Napoleon could produce in Europe the deep underlying unity that is characteristic of India.”

Political Unity

Ever since the ancient times, the rulers of our country set before themselves the ideal to become the Chakravartin i.e. ruler of the whole country. In the ancient times, Mauryan emperors dominated almost the whole country from the Himalayas in the north to the southern part of Deccan and from the Ganges in the east to the Indus in the west. Even the great rulers of the Pathan dynasty Alaud-din Khalji and Muhammad Tughlaq, Sher Shah Sun and the Mughal rulers like Akbar and Shah Jahan did not take rest till they had conquered the entire country. They attempted to introduce a common system of administration in all the territories occupied by them. Later, the British rulers of India introduced a uniform system of administration in a large part of their British Empire in India. India has thus enjoyed political unity in different periods of its history.

Social Unity

There is not much diversity in the social life of the people of India. There are many common social institutions and customs in the whole country. For instance, the caste system, respect for the Brahmans, the practice of untouchability, the joint family system, the sanctity of family life etc. are prevalent in all parts of India. The famous festivals of Diwali, Dussehra and Holi are celebrated throughout the country with gaiety. Similarly, the birth, marriage, death ceremonies are all alike in most parts of the country Since the ancient times to this day, the dowry system, child marriage, pardah system, the duty of women to respect their husbands etc. all these social practices are prevalent in all parts of India. Similarly, all the evil practices like pardah, dowry system, child marriage, untouchability are now on the decline in the whole country. The dress and ornaments used by men and women are also not much different in various parts of the country Men wear shirts, kurta, dhoti, trousers and turbans or cap everywhere in the country. The women wear shirt, lehnga, duppata, dhoti and sari. Women belonging to all classes of the society love to wear gold and silver ornaments like lockets, bangles, bracelets, ear-rings etc.
The British rule in India and the impact of western civilization have greatly influenced the social life of the Indians. They have adopted their table manners, dress, means of entertainment and amusement. The style of living of the people in the large cities is the same. They eat western food, wear western dress and visit hotels and restaurants. They play the same types of games such as cricket, football, volleyball, hockey, basket ball, badminton etc. In fact, the British rule has given social unity to the whole country.

Religious Unity

There is undercurrent of unity even in the diverse religious sects living in India. Hinduism is the oldest religion of India. Hinduism is to India as the soul is to the body. In the medieval period, India was known as Hindustan or the land of the Hindus. Undoubtedly, Hinduism gave unity to India. The Hindus all over India consider the Ramayana, the Mahabharata, the Vedas and the Upnishadas as their sacred books. The stories of ancient Indian regligious heroes—Rama and Krishna are sung with as much devotion in the Tamil Land in the south as in the Punjab in the north. Shiva and Shakti are worshiped by the Hindus in all the parts of India. There are 68 places of pilgrimage of the Hindus spread all over India. For instance, Badrinath, Kedarnath, Varanasi and Mathura are in the Uttar Pradesh, Som Nath and Dawarka are in Gujarat, Jagnnath Pun in Orissa and Rameshwaran in the south.

Unity of Language

Though hundreds of dialects were spoken in ancient India, there was only one sacred language of the Hindus namely Sanskrit. It is acknowledge as such by all sections of the Hindu society even today. Due to the impact of the British rule, English has become the common language of India. English which was studied in all the states of India greatly contributed to the growth of national movement in British India. Great Indian leaders like Raja Barn Mohan Roy, Surinder Nath Banerji, Gopal Krishan Gokhale, Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Pandit Jawahar Lal Nehru, Mohammad Au Jinah, Subhash Chandra Bose and Mahatma Gandhi were scholars of English.

Unity of Education System

In ancient times, elementary education was imparted in the religious institutions spread all over the country. Higher education was imparted at Taxila, Ujjain, Mathura and Nalanda where the students from all parts of the country came to receive education. All these institutions taught the same subjects.

The British Government made efforts to establish a uniform system of education in India. On the recommendations of Sir Charles Wood’s Despatch of 1854 A.D., it established universities in all the
aces. Colleges arid schools were affiliated to these universities. A uniform system of education was produced in the whole country. The present system of education in India is based on the system introduces by the British. The British education system no less contributed to the unity of the country.

Unity in Music and Dance

There is also unity in different spheres of art. The art of classical music
in the country. Since the ancient times, the seven “swars” of music are used in all parts of India. There are more than 100 Ragas and Ragnis in Indian classical music, yet the same basic Ragas w north as well as in the south India. Emphasising the unity of the music system in India,
Bhashan remarks, “Anyone who has heard a performance on the Veena by a good South Indian musician, has probably heard much as it was played over a thousand years ago”. The art of dancing in India also shows the same fundamental unity.

Unity in Independent India

Thus in spite of great diversities in its geographical conditions, religions, sects and creeds, India was regarded as one country But unfortunately, the partition of the country in 1947, broke its geographical and political unity. But independent India has maintained its basic unity. About 500 native states were integrated in the country which gave political unity to new India. The new Constitution of India has provided a uniform system of administration to the whole country. Although the Indian Constitution is federal in structure, it is unitary in spirit. The development of new means of transportation and communication has further strengthened the unity of the country. People living in all parts of the country have shown a unique spirit of unity and nationalism whenever the country was faced with danger to its safety and integrity.

Diversities in India

The most remarkable characteristic of Indian society is unity in diversity. India is a vast country. This sub-continent is called “the epitome of the world”. It has different types of climates, variety of crops, people belonging to more than forty distinct races or nationalities, who speak 150 different languages and use as many as 30 different scripts. Despite such diversities, India is geographically, politically, socially and culturally blessed with fundamental unity Since the ancient times “India offers unity in diversity.” Let us first discuss the diversities in our country.

Diversity of Soil

India being a large country, has different types of soils in different parts of the country In the north it has great Himalaya mountains. The snowy wall runs across the north of India and is about 1600 miles long. The western ranges are not so high. The plains of Indus and the Ganges are about 1000 feet above sea level. While the Deccan plateau is between 1000 feet to 3000 feet high above sea level. Thus India has fertile plains, deserts, hills and high mountains. Some plains of the Ganges are very fertile while the territories of Sindh and Rajasthan have large tracts of deserts. The land of Deccan is rocky and less fertile. But the coastal lands of the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea are very fertile.

Diversity of Climate

The country, as writes Minoo Masani, has a variety of climate from the blazing heat of the plains, as hot in places as hottest Jackobabad in Sindh down to the below freezing point, the Arctic cold of the Himalayan region. While Cherrapunji in Assam hills has 400 inches of rainfall in the year, upper Sindh has only three inches of rainfall in a year.

Diversity of Agricultural Produce

Due to the diversity of climate, different types of crops are produced in different parts of the country. In the eastern regions such as Gangetic plains, the agricultural products are wheat, rice, jute, tobacco, while in the north-west regions farmers mostly produce wheat, cotton, sugar, oilseeds etc. The Deccan region produces spices, coffee, copra, tea, rice, millet etc. There are many types of animals and plants in India in different regions of the country. According to Blandford, ‘The fauna of India surpass that of Europe which is twice its size”.

Diversity of Races

India has different types of people belonging to different races such as Negroids, eddias, the Melainidis (Dravidians), the Mongoloids and Indids (the Indo-Aryans). There are black as white people. There are tall as well as short statured people. There are snub-nosed people as hose with long and pointed noses. No other country contains such differences of human types as India. Some people have small eyes and some have big eyes. Some have long hair and some have short great families of human species, the Austrics, the Tibetarts, the Chinese, the Semitic, the davidians and the Indo Europeans inhabit India, Different dialects are spoken in this sub-continent.

Diversity of Languages

India is a multilingual country It is estimated that 150 languages and 544 dialects , pent in India. The Indian Constitution officially recognizes eighteen languages in the country.

Diversity of Religions

In religion too India shows the same diversity as in climate, land and people. Hindus, Buddhists, Jams, Sikhs, Muhammadens and Christians live here side by side. The Hindu religion itself is divided into numberless sects such as the Vedic Hindusim, Sanatan Dharma, the Puranic Hinduism, the Brahmo Samaj etc. There is also no unity in other religions. For instance, the Buddhists are divided into Hinayanas and Mahayanas. The Muslims are divided into Shias and Sunnis. The Christians are divided into Roman Catholics and Protestants. Thus India has great diversity of religions.

Diversity in Social life

There is much diversity in the social life of the country. The people belonging to different religions follow different social customs, traditions and religious practices. Hindu society is divided into four main castes and numerous sub-castes. The people belonging to different castes and religions have different types of food habits, dress, customs, ritual and religious practices. The people living in the North differ considerably in the social habits from the people living in the South.

Political Diversity

The large size of the country, the endless variety of races, huge population, division of society into countless castes, multiplicity of languages and dialects made difficult for any ruler to establish an all India empire. There was no political unity in the true sense in the country. Some powerful rulers like Chandragupta Maurya, Ashoka, Samudragupta, Ala-ud-din Khilji, Akbar and, Aurangzeb exercised their sway over a large part of India. However, the extensive Southern peninsula always remained independent and was governed by her local provincial dynasties. In fact, India had never enjoyed political unity till the nineteenth century, under the British rule.

Thus India because of such diversities, has sometimes been called the “ethnological and sociological zoo inhabited by all types of people with conflicting and varying shades of blood, culture and modes of life”.

Major Rivers of India

We have read that the rivers constitute the life blood of our country. India is very often called “the land of rivers”.

Major rivers of the Northern India

Indus System: It is one of the largest river systems in the world. It comprises the rivers—Indus, Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Beas and Satluj.

The Ganges: It is the most sacred river of India. From olden times, the Ganges is the story of Indian civilization and culture. The Ganges begins its journey from Gomukh glacier near Gangotri. It enters the plains at Haridwar. It meets Jamuna river at Prayag (Allahabad). The Ganges is a 2525 km long river. Many important cities of India like Haridwar, Kanpur, Allahabad, Patna and Calcutta (Kolkata) are situated on its banks.

Brahmaputra is a very important river system. This river is 2880 km long. It flows parallel to the Himalayas in Tibet. It enters India in Arunachal Pradesh. There are frequent floods in this river which cause huge loss. After passing through Assam, it enters Bangla Desh. It is joined there by Padma river and forms a large delta.

Major rivers of the Deccan Peninsula
The rivers of the Deccan Peninsula are seasonal. These flow through narrow and deep valleys.

The rivers falling in the Arabian Sea

  • Narmada- it rises from Amarkantak Plateau in Madhya Pradesh. It does not form delta on the western coast.
  • Tapti rises near Betul in Mahadev hills. It flows through a rift valley. The other rivers which fall in it are Looni, Sabarmati and Mahi. It is 724 kilometres long and falls in the Arabian Sea.

Rivers failing into the Bay of Bengal

The Damodar River rises from Chhota Nagpur plateau and is 570 km long. A multipurpose project known as Damodar Valley Project (DVC) has been constructed on it. It has checked floods and generates electricity The Mahanadi rises from Amarkantak plateau. It is 857 miles long. It is a navigable river and forms a fertile delta. The Godavari rises from Western Ghats. It is 1440 km long and is the longest river in the Deccan. It forms a delta on the east coast.

The Krishna rises in Western Chats. It is 1400 km long. It is joined by two main streams : Bhima and Tungabhadra. The Cauvery rises in the Coorg district. It is 800 km long. This river is much useful for irrigation, navigation and hydro-power generation. This river has a very beautiful waterfall named Shivsamudram. The river forms a delta on the East Coast.

The Himalayan rivers of the North have some different characteristics from those of the Deccan peninsular rivers. In the first place, the rivers of the North viz, the Indus and Ganges and their tributaries derive water from the Himalayan snow fields and have regular flow of water. But the Peninsular rivers are seasonal. They get water from the rainfall. Secondly, the Northern rivers have a few waterfalls. These are, therefore, not so useful for hydel power generation. On the other hand, Deccan rivers have waterfalls and are used for hydel electric power. Thirdly, the Himalayan rivers have large basins and have extensive catchment areas. These can be used to store large volumes of water. But the Peninsular rivers have small basins and small catchment areas. They do not have large volumes of water. Fourthly, the Northern rivers flow through the plains, they irrigate large tracts of land. But the Peninsular rivers flow on the rocky lands They are not much useful for irrigation or navigation. Fifthly, many important towns have developed on the banks of the rivers in the Northern India. But very few towns are situated on the banks of the rivers in the peninsula.