GUIDELINES FROM THE CONSTITUTION
After independence India has accepted some broad social and economic objectives for her. Later on these objectives were included in our written Constitution. In India this Constitution was enforced on January 26, 1950. Since then in the operation of the Economy these objectives provide guidelines to our government. These objectives are spelt out in the preamble and directive principles of our Constitution.
PREAMBLE OF THE CONSTITUTION
Indian Constitution starts with a preamble. This preamble briefly but explicitly declares the objectives which we seek to achieve. Some amendments were made in this preamble in 1976. The preamble reads:
We, the people of India solemnly resolve to constitute India into a Sovereign Socialist Secular Democratic Republic and to secure to all its citizens: Justice, social,economic and political; Equality of status and of opportunity; and to promote among them all Fraternity assuring the dignity of the individual and the unity and integrity of the nation.
Thus the preamble of the Constitution outlines the following main objectives
(a) Justice—political, social and economic;
(b) Liberty of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship;
(c) Equality of status and opportunity; and.
(d) Fraternity based on ‘dignity of individual and unity of nation.
In other words, our main aim is to establish a socialistic society within the framework of democracy and secularism.
One of the important features of our Constitution is its directive principles. These principles are a sort of directive to the government to keep the welfare of the people in mind while formulating its policies. Though government is not bound to observe them yet it is expected that she will take guidance from them. Now we shall mention some of the important directive principles related with .the economic field of our country.
These principles direct the state
(i) To provide adequate means of livelihood for all citizens;
(ii) To ensure proper distribution of material resources of the community for the common good;
(iii) To secure equal pay for equal work to both men and women;
(iv) To protect the strength and health of workers;
(v) To make provision fOr securing right to work, to education and to public assistance in cases of unemployment, old age, sickness and similar other cases;
(vi) To prevent the concentration of wealth and means of production;
(vii) To ensure a decent standard of living and facilities of leisure for all workers;
(viii) To provide opportunities and facilities for the proper development of children and to protect them from exploitation;
(ix) To protect the economic interests of the weaker section of the society, especially the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes;
(x) To promote cottage industries in the rural areas;
(xi) To organise agriculture and animal husbandry on modern and scientific lines; and
(xii) To protect and improve the environment.
Thus, on the basis of Preamble and Directive Principles of the Constitution we can determine what is in social interest and what is not. The basic objective of the state is to promote economic development with social justice and environment quality. Hence the main role of the state in our country is to see that both sectors should work in, the direction of these objectives. Whenever there is any hurdle in the fulfillment of these objectives or if they are neglected, it becomes the bounden duty of the government to interfere in that situation.