Welfare and Advisory Organisation
The Central Government and the State governments have set up welfare and advisory organisations to put various welfare schemes for the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes, backward classes and the weaker sections of the society into practice. The Commissioners who are the heads of these organisations submit their reports to the President of India from time to time about the progress of various welfare programmes.
Financial Aid. The Government gives financial aid to the Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and the other Backward Classes to save them from the exploitation of the money lenders. The government also gave land to the landless labourers and effective measures were taken to solve the problem of bonded labour under the Twenty-Point Programme started by Prime Minister Mrs Indira Gandhi. Different commissions were appointed from time to time to suggest measures to the government regarding the policy of reservation of government jobs.
(1) Kaka Kalekar Commission. In 1953, the Government appointed a commission to look into the problems of the backward classes. It made a list of 2399 backward classes. Out of it, 837 classes were declared as the most backward classes.
(2) Balwant Rai Mehta Commission. This Commission submitted its report in March 1959. It gave the following suggestions:
1. All traditional restrictions imposed on Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes must be removed.
2. A comprehensive programme may be made to eradicate the problem of untouchability
3. Special arrangements should be made to lift garbage. The garbage should never be lifted by placing it on the head.
Mandal Commission. Under the prime ministership of Morarji Desai, a commission named Mandal Commission was set up to identify Other backward classes. This report was taken out from cold storage
in August 1990 and it give 27 per cent reservation to OBC in addition to reservations already practised. Prime Minister V.P Singh declared that he would implement the suggestions given by the Commission.
But due to the fall of his Government, the suggestions of the Commission were not implemented. The Mandal Commission’s report was unscientific and biased. It does not make dear the definition of OBC. It encouraged casteism and could divide society into numerous hostile groups.
In order to overcome the problem, it is suggested that reservation should be based on economic factors. All those who are below poverty line are the real claimants of right to reservation of seats and special facilities.