Government of India, from the very beginning, has been making special efforts to increase employment opportunities in the country Since Fourth Plan, it has re-doubled its efforts in this direction. The main steps taken by the Government to remove unemployment are as follows:
(a) Small Farmers’ and Marginal Farmers’ Development Agencies have been established.
(b) Integrated Rural Development Programme was started in 1978.
(c) In 1980, Government of India launched National Rural Employment Programme in place of Food for Work Programme.
(d) On 15th August, 1979, the Government started National Scheme of Training of Rural Youth Self-employment to reduce unemployment among the youth.
(e) On 15th August, 1983, Rural Landless Employment Guarantee Scheme was launched to provide employment to landless agricultural workers.
(f) With a view to reduce unemployment, Government has made special efforts to develop small and cottage industries. In 1990-91, as many as 315 lakh persons were employed in these industries. A sum of Rs. 34 crores was spent in 1991 in order to promote Self-employment Scheme.
(g) In 1969, Government of India nationalised 14 banks and in 1980 again 6 banks were nationalised with a view to provide self-employment.
(h) The facilities of employment exchanges have been increased.
(i) Employment Guarantee Scheme has been launched in many states.
(j) On 28th April, 1989, Jawahar Rozgar Yojana was launched. The objective of this Yojana is to provide employment to at least one member of each poor family for fifty to hundred days a year at work place near his residence.
(k) Employment Assurance Scheme was started in 1993.
(l) Prime Minister Rozgar Scheme was also started in 1993.
(m) In 1996, Prime Minister’s Integrated Urban Poverty Eradication Programme was launched.
(n) In 1999, Swarnjayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana was launched.
(o) In 1999, Jawahar Gram Samridhi Yojana was started.
(p) In 2000-2001, Pradhan Mantri Gramodaya Yojana (PMGY) was introduced with the objective of focussing on village level development in five critical areas Le. health, primary education, drinking water, housing and rural roads, with the overall objective of improving the quality of people in the rural
(q) Samagra Awaas Yojana was launched as a comprehensive housing scheme in 1999-2000.
(r) Annapuma Scheme came into effect from April 1, 2000.
(s) Krishi Shramik Suraksha Yojana was launched in July, 2001.
(t) Shiksha Sahyog Yojana has been finalised for providing educational allowance of Rs. 100 per month to the children of parents living below the poverty line for their education from 9th to 12th standard.
(u)Food for Work Programme was launched in February 2001.