Implementation of Rights of the Backward Classes and Weaker Sections of the Society

Welfare and Advisory Organisation

The Central Government and the State governments have set up welfare and advisory organisations to put various welfare schemes for the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes, backward classes and the weaker sections of the society into practice. The Commissioners who are the heads of these organisations submit their reports to the President of India from time to time about the progress of various welfare programmes.

Financial Aid. The Government gives financial aid to the Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and the other Backward Classes to save them from the exploitation of the money lenders. The government also gave land to the landless labourers and effective measures were taken to solve the problem of bonded labour under the Twenty-Point Programme started by Prime Minister Mrs Indira Gandhi. Different commissions were appointed from time to time to suggest measures to the government regarding the policy of reservation of government jobs.

(1) Kaka Kalekar Commission. In 1953, the Government appointed a commission to look into the problems of the backward classes. It made a list of 2399 backward classes. Out of it, 837 classes were declared as the most backward classes.
(2) Balwant Rai Mehta Commission. This Commission submitted its report in March 1959. It gave the following suggestions:
1. All traditional restrictions imposed on Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes must be removed.
2. A comprehensive programme may be made to eradicate the problem of untouchability
3. Special arrangements should be made to lift garbage. The garbage should never be lifted by placing it on the head.

Mandal Commission. Under the prime ministership of Morarji Desai, a commission named Mandal Commission was set up to identify Other backward classes. This report was taken out from cold storage
in August 1990 and it give 27 per cent reservation to OBC in addition to reservations already practised. Prime Minister V.P Singh declared that he would implement the suggestions given by the Commission.

But due to the fall of his Government, the suggestions of the Commission were not implemented. The Mandal Commission’s report was unscientific and biased. It does not make dear the definition of OBC. It encouraged casteism and could divide society into numerous hostile groups.
In order to overcome the problem, it is suggested that reservation should be based on economic factors. All those who are below poverty line are the real claimants of right to reservation of seats and special facilities.

Major Industries in India

The spatial distribution of industries can also be studied with respect to major industries with the aim of explaining the advantages they enjoy and lines of movement of raw materials and manufactured goods.


It is chiefly mineral-based industry and is the basis of modern industrialisation. India is today world’s fifth largest producer of iron, order up from 7th position few years back. Iron and steel is the foundation of modern machines, tools, transportation (rail, road, water, air). It is used in making super structures, bridges, tanks, agricultural implements and many products of daily use. Therefore, it is called a basic industry or key industry. It has great strength, toughness, elasticity and low cost of production. The production and consumption of steel is the index of the economic development of a country. Ours is truly an ‘age of steel.’
A modest beginning of the industry was made at Kulti (West Bengal) in 1870. The first modern steel plant was established in 1907 at Sakchi (Jamshedpur) in Jharkhand by Jamshedji Tata. India produces the cheapest steel in the world. India has large reserves of high grade iron ore, coking coal and limestone. These raw materials are found close to each other. India produces 226 lakh tonnes of steel. With the establishment of new steel plants, it is expected to reach 250 lakh tonnes of steel. All the steel plants except Jamshedpur are in public sector.

Centres of Production
a) Damodar Valley. This region has TISCO (Tata Iron and Steel Company) steel plant at Jamshedpur (Jharkhand) and IISCO (Indian Iron and Steel Company) steel plant at Kulti-Burnpul Chota Nagpur plateau (including West Bengal, Bihar, Orissa, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh .and M.P.) is the natural core of this industry.

Geographical Factors for location:
(i) Availability of iron ore from Singhbhum region, (ii) Coking coal from Jharia and Raniganj, (iii) Limestone, manganese and quartz are available nearby, (iv) Damodar, Subamrekha, Kharkai provide water and sand, (v) Cheap labour from densely populated states of Bihar and West Bengal, (vi) Facilities of cheap transport, and port of Kolkata.

b) Visvesvaraya Iron and Steel Limited. This steel plant is located at Bhadravati (Karnataka). It produces alloy and special steel. Iron ore is obtained from Babu Budan Hills, charcoal from Kadur forests; water power from Jog falls; limestone from Bhandigudda mines.

c) Steel Centres in Public Sector. Four steel plants have been developed in the public sector, under HSL (Hindustan Steel Limited) with the collaboration of some foreign countries.
(i) Bhilai (Chhattisgarh)—With the help of Russia.
(ii) Rourkela (Orissa)—By German firm Krupps Demag.
(iii) Durgapur (W. Bengal)—With British aid.
(iv) Bokaro (Jharkhand)—With the help of Russia.
Geographical Factors for Location:
(i) Bhilai gets iron ore from DhaI/i Ra/hara hills, coal from Korba and Jharia coal fields; Manganese from Ba/ag/rat ranges and limestone from Nana’ani mines.

(ii) Durgapur gets iron ore from Sing/thhum; coal from RanrçwnJ limestone from Gangpur and water from D.VC
(iii) Rourkela gets iron from Bonaz. coal from Jharzi and Ranianf limestone from Binmirapin:
(iv) Bokaro, an ore based steel plant gets coal from Jhan, iron from KeonjZiar and water power from

d) New Steel Plants. The government has set up new steel plants at:
(i) Vishakhapatham (Andhra Pradesh)
(ii) Salem (Tamil Nadu)
(iii) Vijaynagar, (near Hospet, Kamataka).

The capacity of the different steel plants is being expanded. The production of pig iron and steel is being increased by setting up new industries, mini plants based on scrap iron. At present there are 200 mini steel plants in India producing 8.5 million tonnes of steel. India exports about 10 lakh tonnes of steel every year. In 1973, SAIL (Steel Authority of India Limited) has been established for the better management of these steel plants.


India has taken a giant leap forward in production of cotton by introducing a new variety of hybrid cotton. Cotton textile industry is one of the oldest industries in India as old as Indus valley civilisation. it was a simple cottage industry Spinning and weaving were the earliest crafts of primitive man. The industry owes its rapid development due to Industrial revolution. The first modern cotton mill was set up at Fort Gloster (Kolkata) in 1818. The real first cotton mill was established in 1854 in Mumbai. A large home market, manufacturing of textile machinery and abundant supply of cotton have led to the growth of this industry in India. There are about 1719 textile mills scattered over 80 towns and the annual production of cloth is about 3740 crore metres. 188 mills are in public sector, 146 mills in the corporation sector and 1235 mills in the private sector. India is the second largest producer of cotton textile in the world. The number of composite units is 378 while spinning mills are 770. The per capita availability of cloth is 30 metres.

Distribution of Cotton Textile Industry:

(i) Maharashtra. Muinbai is the oldest centre of cotton textile industry in India. Mumbai is known as “Cotton polis of India”. Nagpur, Pune, Sholapur, Amaravati are other centres. The following factors have led to the concentration of this industry at Mumbai:
(1) Early start (2) Large amount of capital (3) Long staple cotton from Gujarat and Maharashtra (4) Facilities of Mumbai as a port (5) Easy import of machinery (6) Humid climate (7) Cheap labour (8) Water power from Tata Hydro-electric works (9) Large ready market (10) Opening of Suez Canal route.
(II) Gujarat. Ahmedabad is the largest producer of cotton textiles in India. It is known as the “Manchester of India”.
Ahmedabad is situated in the heart of cotton growing area. Cheap land is also available.
(iii) Tamil Nadu. The development of hydro-electricity in the south and cultivation of long staple cotton led to the location of this industry in Southern India. Madurai, Coimbatore, Salem and Chennai are main centres.
(iv) West Bengal. Most of the mills are located at Koilcata in the Hooghly basin.
(v) Uttar Pradesh. Kanpur is the main centre and is called the “Manchester of Northern India”.
(vi) The dispersal of this industry has led to the growth of new centres like Bhopal, Gwalior, Bangalore, Phagwara, Bhiwani, Dethi and Kota.
Importance. (i) Cotton textiles is the oldest and the biggest industry in India. (ii) About 64 million workers are engaged in this industry. (iii) It has the largest amount of capital (Rs. 1300 crore) invested. (iv) It earns about a sum of Rs. 20,000 crore as foreign exchange by export of manufactured goods. (v) Many industries such as dyes, chemicals depend on cotton products.


Sugar is an important article of food. It has a universal demand. Sugar is one of the major agro-based industries of India. India is regarded as the birth place of sugarcane and sugar.

Importance. (i) India is the largest producer of suga in the world. (ii) It is the second largest industry of India with capital of Rs. 1000 crore. (iii) About 3 lakh workers are engaged in this industry. (iv) About two crore farmers depend upon this industry. (v) India exports about 5 lakh tonnes of sugar every year. (vi) Many industries such as alcohol, paper, wax, fertilizers, cattle feed are based on byproducts.

India is one of the oldest producers of sugarcane in the world. The home industry was granted protection in 1932. Since then, the industry has rapidly developed. There are about 460 sugar mills producing about 150 lakh metric tonnes of sugar. North India (U.P. and Bihar) produces about 60% of sugar in India.

Shifting of Sugar Industry to Southern India. U.P. is the largest producer of sugar in India despite the fact that ideal conditions for sugarcane are found in uthem India. But recently the industry is shifting towards the states of Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh in Peninsular India.

(i) The yield per hectare of sugarcane is high in southern India. (ii) The sucrose content in sugarcane is high in southern India as compared to that in northern India. (iii) The southern states have installed new mills, where productivity is high and cost of production is low. (iv) Climatic conditions are ideal in southern states. (v) The co-operative movement has helped to install new mills in these areas.
(i) Availability of sugarcane in Northern India. (ii) Cheap and skilled labour. (iii) Large demand. (iv) Availability of coal. (v) Cheap transport.

Main centres:

(1) U.P. Saharanpur, Muzaffarnagar, Meerut, Gorakhpur, Sitapur, Bareilly.
(2) Biliar. Champaran, Patna.
(3) Maharashtra. Abmednagar, Sholapur.
(4) Andhra Pradesh. Hyderabad.
(5) Punjab. Amritsar, Bhogpur, Phagwara, Batala, Nawanshahr.
(6) Ratlam (M.P.), Rohtak (Haryana), Madurai (Tamil Nadu).

Problems. Sugar industry is facing some problems. Yield of sugarcane is low. Sugar content is low. It is a seasonal industry. There is absence of industries consuming by-products of sugarcane. Cost of sugar is high.


In ancient period leaves and stones were used for writing. The word paper is derived from a plant called Papyrus. Paper making was invented in China in about 105 A.D. Later on paper making machines were invented in European countries. Machine made paper was first manufactured in India in 1870.

Importance. Paper is the basis of modem civilization. There is a great consumption of paper in developed countries. Paper is required for note books, magazines, books, newspapers etc. Different types of paper such as wrapping paper, art paper, bank paper, card board, news-print, duplicating paper etc. are manufactured. Different types of raw materials such as cotton, rags, wood pulp, bamboo, Sabai-Bhabar grass, waste of cotton, jute, bagasse are used for paper making.
‘PIie first paper mill was established in India in 1870 on the Hooghly river near Kolkata. At present there are 380 paper mifis in India, producing about 40 lakh tOnnes of paper annually. In India, prothiction of wood pulp is low.

Main centres
1. West Bengal. West Bengal is the largest producer of paper in India. The main centres are Titagarh, Raniganj, Naihati and Kolkata. This region has many favourable conditions.
(i) Bamboo is available from Sunderban Delta and Assam.
(ii) Grass comes from Bihar.
(iii) Coal from Jharia and Raniganj.
(iv) Large market due to dense population.
(v) Clean and soft water from Hooghly river.
(vi) Cheap transport.
2. Uttar Pradesh. Paper mills are found at Saharanpur, Meerut, Lucknow and Kanpur.
3. Madhya Pradesh. There is a newsprint mill at Nepa Nagar in M.P.

4. Ootakumund has a mill for the production of X-ray roll, and films and photo paper.

5. Other centres are Brajraj Nagar (Orissa), Dalmia Nagar (Bihar), Bangalore (Karnataka), Pune, Ballarpur (Maharashtra), Jagadhri (Haryana), Bhopal (Madhya Pradesh), Mukerian (Punjab).

The first jute mill was set up in india at Rishra near Kolkata in 1859. Thereafter, being an export- oriented industry, it made rapid progress. At the time of the partition of the country in 1947 most of the mills remained in India but three-fourths of the jute growing area went to East Pakistan, now Bangladesh. In 1997-98, there were 66 jute mills which produced 13,94,000 tonnes of jute goods and employed 25,000 workers. In the same year we exported 2,90,000 tonnes of jute goods which fetched us foreign exchange worth rupees 244 crore. The exports are decreasing due to a number of factors like declining demand for jute bags, high cost of manufactured goods, stiff competition in the export market and competition from synthetic substitutes both in the foreign market as well as in the home market. Centres of jute industry are Kolkata, Patha and Guwahati.


Woollen textile industry is located at Amritsar, Dhariwal and Ludhiana in Punjab; Mumbai in Maharashtra; Jamnagar in Gujarat Kanpur in Uttar Pradesh; Srinagar in Jammu and Kashmir, and Ban- galore in Kamataka. We produce about 14,000 tonnes of wool. The production of woollen cloth in 1950-51 was 60 lakh metres which increased to 220 lakh metres in 1997-98. We imported wool worth rupees 79 crore.


In India, silk is obtained from silk-worms reared on mulberry trees. The area under these trees is nearly 2,40,000 hectares which is mostly confined to Kamataka, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. The silk textile centres are, Mysore and Bangalore in Karnataka, Kanchipuram in Tamil Nadu; Varanasi in Uttar Pradesh, Murshidabad in West Bengal, Amritsar in Punjab, Srinagar in Jammu and Kashmir, Kota in Rajasthan and Surat in Gujarat.

Synthetic fabrics are prepared from rayon, nylon, threne and dacron. Their fibres are developed from wood pulp, petroleum, coal etc. through chemical processes. These fabrics are durable. The chief centres of synthetic textiles are Mumbai, Surat, Ahmedabad, Gwalior, Delhi, Amritsar and Calcutta. In 1950-51, our country produced 9,510 lakh metres of synthetic fabrics. This production rose to 22,530 lakh metres in 1997-98.


Fibre is prepared from the husk of coconut. Ropes and mats are prepared from this fibre. The industry is concentrated in rural areas of Kerala. Mostly women work in the coir industry. It provides livelihood to well over 5 lakh people. In 1950-51, our country exported coir yarn and manufactures worth rupees 13 crore which rose to 33.5 crore rupees in 1997-98.


India is an agricultural country The use of fertilizer is increasing due to intensive agriculture and Green Revolution. The soils are becoming poor due to the lack of nitrogen. So it is essential to use fertilizers to maintain soil fertility and to increase the productivity of land.

The first fertilizer plant was set up in 1906 at Ranipeth (Tamil Nadu). In 1951, Sindri Fertilizer Plant in Bihar (now Jharkhand) was set up which became the largest plant in Asia. At present, there are 55 large fertilizer plants and 87 small plants producing 17 lath tonnes nitrogen and 26 lath tonnes phosphate. The four agencies FCI, NFL, HFL and IFFCS have set up different plants. Still we have to import fertilizers.

Despite tremendous increase in the production of fertilizers large quantity is imported every year to meet the ever increasing demand. By 2000 AD. the country’s needs are estimated to be around 200 laKh tonnes and by 2050 A.D. 400 lath tonnes of fertilisers. Mostly these plants are located near the availability of raw materials like coal and petroleum and big power plants that have enough electricity to produce fertilisers from the nitrogen of the atmosphere. But now these plants are being set up where natural gas is available as it provides valuable raw material. Fertiliser plants are in public, private, joint and cooperative sectors.


It has made tremendous progress due to construction work in the urban and rural areas. There are now 144 cement factories in production with a total installed capacity of about 1100 lakh tonnes as on June 1987. In 1997- 98, our country produced 830 lakh tonnes of cement.

The industry is both in private and public sectors. The basic raw material of the industry is limestone. Major centres of cement industry are Surajpur and Dalmi Dadri in Haryana, Lakheri in Rajasthan, Porbander in Gujarat, Dalmianagar in Bihar, Rajban in Himachal Pradesh.


Ours is the largest oilseeds and vegetable oil producing country in the world. Because of our large population we are the largest consumer of vegetable oil, as it is the cooking medium all over the country. The vegetable industry was set up in 1930 and it accounted for a nominal production. The production of vegetable oil in 1960-61 was 3,40,000 tonnes which rose to 64 lath tonnes in 1997-98 from 102 mills. The consumption rose to 72 lakh tonnes. Hence, there is need for import.
Vegetable industry draws its raw material from groundnut, sun flower seeds, mustard and rape seeds, coconuts and soyabeans. Gujarat is the largest producer of vegetable oil particularly the groundnut oil. The industry is widely spread owing to its vast market and availability of various kinds of oil seeds in different parts of the country.


Roads, Railways and Airways are the chief means of transport in India. Road transport is widespread than the railway and air transport. Since Independence we have made rapid progress in the production of commercial vehicles-buses and trucks and cars, motor cycles, scooters.

Commercial vehides such as trucks are made at Jamshedpur and Chennai. Passenger vehicles such as cars are manufactured at Kolkata, Mumbai and Faridabad.

Railway Equipment. It includes railway engines, wagons and coaches. Railway engines comprise three types, namely Coal or Steam engine, Diesel engines and Electrical engines. The coal or steam engines are on their way out and are being manufactured at Chittaranjan Locomotive Works in West Bengal. The railway engines/or metre gauge railway line are manufactured by TELCO at Jamshedpur. Goods wagons are produced at a number of places in India. Integrated coaches are manufactured at Perambur near Chennai and Kapurthala.

SHIP-BUILDING centres of India are located at Cochin, Goa, Mumbai, Vishakhapatnamand.Kolkata. Cochin shipyard developed with Japanese know-how is the largest and latest in our country It builds ships of 86,000 tonnes (DWT). Vishakhapatnam yard having capacity of building ships upto 45,000 (DWT), has built 89 ships since Independence. Dry docks repair big ships. We are pianning to manufacture aircraft carriers.
The aircraft industiy has been set up at Bangalore, Koraput (Orrisa), Hyderabad, Nasik (Maharashtra), Lucknow and Korba (Chhattisgarh). These centres specialise in making certain aircrafts for defence requirements. Our country has made jet trainer plane Kiran MK II, Chetak and Cheetah he1iaWtrs. Fighter airplanes are also prepared in India like Jaguar, MIG 21, MIG 27 etc.


A wide range of electrical goods are produced in India. Now we have also started manufacturing heavy equipments like transformers, electric motors, electrical traction motors, water turbines etc. The major centres of these industries are Hyderabad, Trichi, Bangalore, Bhopal, Jagdishpur, Ranipet and Haridwar.


This industry includes the manufacturing of radio and television sets, control instruments and industrial electronics, computer systems, communication and broadcasting equipment, electronic components, aerospace and defence equipment etc. In 1997-98 its production was worth 32,070 crore rupee.


We must protect our international border and should always be ready to defend our motherland from foreign invasion. Consequently we have started manufacturing defence equipment for our army, navy and airforce. We produce heavy tanks, battleship and supersonic war planes. We are also preparing ourselves to produce missiles.


The chemical industry includes the production of drugs, pesticides, paints, dyestuffs, etc. Pesticides include insecticides, fungicides, weedicides, rodenticides which are extremely important for agriculture and useful for public health purposes. Chemical industry ranks fourth, next only to iron and steel, engineering and textile industries. The pesticides industry has made steady progress since independence. The manufacture of pesticides in our country commenced in India in 1952 with the setting up of plant at Rishra near Kolkata. It was followed by DDT plant in 1954 at Delhi.



Our country is almost self-sufficient in basic bulk drugs. A wide range of bulk drugs and formulations are being exported to several countries including West European countries. We exported drugs worth rupees 194 crore.


Industries depending upon minerals such as salt, sulphur are called chemical Industries, but indusdepending on coal, oil are called petro-chemicals. The petro-chemical products are substituting the traditional raw materials like wood, glass, metal etc. The use of plastics in various industry is bringing about revolutionary changes. The petro-chemical industry has been of recent origin in India. The products are plastic raw materials, synthetic fibres, synthetic rubber etc. The production of
synthelic fibres which was 1.5 lakh tonnes in 1985 increased to 2.5 lakh tonnes in 1996-97. Similarly the xluction of plastic raw materials increased from 2.7 lath tonnes to 2.85 lath tonnes in 1996-97. The
centres of petro-chemical industry are located at Vadodara (Gujarat) and near Mumbai.


Small scale and cottage industries play an important role in the country’s economy. These industries decayed during the British rule. But after independence, these have developed at a very rapid rate. These are a source of employment and source of income to crores of artisans, villagers and farmers. These small units need small capital investments and help large scale industries. These industries include handicrafts, khadi, leather, machine tools etc. The industries developed in villages depending on local raw materials are known as cottage industry. These include handlooms, forest based industries, bee-keeping, pottery and carpentry
India produces a large number of handicrafts. Skilled and experienced labour is working in all parts of the country About 2 crore persons are working in different cottage and handicrafts. These industries provide full time or part time employment.

Handicrafts depend upon the skill of workers. The major handicrafts include carpet making, hand printing of cloth, wood carving, toy making, earthenware, metaiware, bamboo and cane work, stone carving, coin making.

(i) Textiles. Hand woven textiles, carpet making, lace work, zari, shawls.
(ii) Metaiware. Silver and gold ware, brass, copper and bronze ware.
(iv) Stone and glass work. Marble carving, bangles, precious stones, jewellery
(v) Wood work. Wood carving, decorative furniture.
(vi) Others. Gem cutting in Surat and Jaipur, enamelled ware in Jaipur, brass plates in Muradabad, metal plates in Thanjavur, bidriware objects in Bidar (Kamataka), wood work in Kashmh, ivory articles and coir industry in Kerala.


There was a time when self sufficiency in the industrial sector was the need of hour, but now-a-days with the development of the technology and increased production India is self-sufficient. We have many surplus products which can be exported. But now-a-days self-sufficiency is not enough. Specialization is increasing in many industries. There is strong competition in international market. Our goods must be at par in the international market. Then alone we will fetch foreign exchange and increase our national wealth, remove poverty and raise the standard of living of the people. Japan is a classic example of an efficient labour. So high degree of efficiency and competitiveness is our latest priority.

Means of Communication and Trade in India

Means of Communication

Communication today is limitless network of computers, radio and T.V. broadcasting as well as traditional mail transmission. No doubt some of the chief means of communication are the same as were used a 100 years back, revolution has been in the field of transmission as well as their integrated use. The chief means of communication are the following:

(i) Postal Network: The country has today over 1,50,000 post offices and the mail system consists of traditional post cards, inland letters and envelopes. In majority of cases they are either airlifted or sent by train. In order the facilitate easy sorting and transmission the Posts and Telegraphs Department has introduced various channels like Rajdliani, Metro, Green, Business and Bulk Mail channels. Automatic mail processing centres are functioning at Kolkata, Delhi and Mumbai. Over 500 post-offices have been computerised. Today money orders can also be sent via satellites or via computer. Other new services include: e-post — chiefly meant for P.C. users. Information is communicated via internet. Bill-Post: A web-based application for payment at one source for telephone, mobile phone, electricity, water supply and municipal taxes.

(ii) Telecommunication: India is emerging the largest telecom networks nation in Asia. Apart from 32,000 landline telephone exchanges with a capacity of over 40 million lines and 35 million working landline telephones, the recent addition of mobile phones is yet to be estimated. Like in other fields Telecom services have also been thrown open to private sector. The mobile plus internet (via computer) offer immense communication—cum—knowledge based services to users. Through the mobile phone one can receive or make calls through the Global System for Mobile (GSM), on the mobile hand-held device users can do lot more than merely listening to telephone conversation. The services on mobile phone today include graphics, watching video clips, playing games, solving puzzles, doing calculation, getting information from electronic libraries anywhere in the world, reading latest news or newspaper, doing:
bank transactions and lots of other services. All these are known as Value Added Services.

(iii) Computer and Internet Communication: The internet is a network of computer linking world wide. Internet Services Provider (ISP) have registered more than 50 lakh internet subscribers in India. Basically internet is a. convergence of modern communication technologies. It initiates some of the functions that the human brain performs. For two-way communication e-mail service has both personal and business applications. It is used by millions of users daily.

(iv) Other Communication Services: These include print media like newspapers, magazines and other printed literature, Electronic mass media like radio and television which are also undergoing revolutionary changes, Fax and other services via satellites.

Trade in India

Trade occurs when there are differences in availability of resources between two areas whether at local level or global level. Foreign trade has played a crucial role in India’s economy since the time of Harappan culture 5000 years ago. During 2001 India’s exports amounted to Rs. 2,01,000 crores against imports of Rs. 2,27,000 crores. The exports registered a growth of 26.4 per cent. Chief items of export include ores,
minerals, marine products, jewellery, electronics including computer software, textiles, chemicals, engineering goods and handicrafts. The principal imports included oil (petroleum), fertilizers, edible oils, newsprint, precious stones, machinery, project goods, pharmaceuticals, chemicals, artificial resins. India’s trading partners include USA, West
European and CIS countries, ASEAN and East Asian countries. The major trading countries in ASEAN region include Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, Vietnam, Myanmar. New Zealand and Australia are also India’s major trading partners. Trade with South American and Caribbean nations is also increasing. The United States is India’s largest trading partner. India’s exports to USA in 2001 amounted to Rs. 42,403 crores against imports of Rs. 12,812 crores.

Balance of Trade : In the context of today’s globalisation, the unfavourable balance of trade is not worrying India very much. It is because there has been all round progress on many fronts. The trade deficit of Rs. 25,898 crores during 2001 came down from Rs. 55,967 crores in the year 2000.

Measure to Promote Exports : Exports Measures taken to promote exports include exports of value added agricultural products, setting up of trade facilitation centres abroad simplifying export- import procedures, free-trade agreements with countries like Sri Lanka as well as preferential trading agreements with many countries. Above quality improvements and improving the image of the tag ‘Made-in-India.’

Airways in India

Air transport services for personal and commercial use are together called Civil Aviation. India today has 11 international airports including 28 passenger terrünals. The Airports Authority of India controls and manages Indian space extending beyond the territorial limits of the country.
The Government has however ended the monopoly of both public sector undertaking—the Air India and Indian Airlines. The Air Corporation Act of 1953 now stands repealed. At present 38 companies are holding non-taxi operators permit. Two private scheduled airlines are also operating besides the national carrier Air India as well as Indian Airlines. The Indian Airlines provides air services for passenger, cargo and mail on the internal air network in the country and seven neighboring countries. It has in its fleet 11 airlines, 27 Boeing and five F-27 air crafts. It has its headquarters at Delhi. During the year 1992- 93, the total number of passengers carried by the Indian Airlines was 8 million.

Air India provides international air service. It carries air traffic to 88 countries. It has its headquarters at Mumbai. Vayudoot provides air service to inaccessible areas. Pawan Hans Helicopters LTD. has been providing services to ONGC, etc.

Pipeline Transport in India

Pipeline is an important means of transporting petroleum and natural gas. In some countries, pipelines are used for transporting milk. It is a cheap means of transportation in inaccessible areas, dense forests, deserts and on high mountains. The following pipelines have been constructed in India.

(i) A pipeline connects Assam oil fields with Guwahati and Barauni.
(ii) A pipeline connects Haldia oil refinery with Barauni.
(iii) Baraurn has been connected by a pipeline with Kanpur, Mathura and Jalandhar.
(iv) Mumbai High is connected with Trombay oil refinery by a submarine pipeline 207 km long.
(v) The longest pipeline in India is 1220 km long from Salaya (Kutch) to Koyali and onwards to Mathura via Vimgiam in Gujarat.
(vi) A pipeline to car natural gas connects Hazira in Gujarat vth Bijaipur in M.P. to Jagdishpur in U.P. This HBJ pipeline, 1730 km long, would supply gas to six fertilizer plants and two thermal power plants based on natural gas.
(vii) 600 km long pipeline connects Vizag to Secunderabad.
(viii) A. 710 km long pipeline from Mangalore to Coimbatore has also now been commissioned.

Integrating role of transport

Means of transport are the lifeline of a country. A developed and efficient system of transport is vital for maintaining the sovereignty and economic unity of the country. Under the 20 year Nagpur plan, a balanced and integrated transport system of rail, road and waterways
has been aimed at. The different means of transport have played an integrating role in the political and economic unity of India.
(i) These have connected far flung areas with one another. Leh has been connected with Kanya Kumari, while Assam has been connected with Kutch.
(ii) Means of transport distribute food grains, manufactured goods, raw materials and minerals to different parts of the country
(iii) Pipelines supply petroleum and gas to different areas.
(iv) The commercialization of agriculture, manufacturing, growth of towns and cities have been achieved due to means of transport.
(v) The new road, rail lines have integrated the border areas with the rest of the country Jawahar tunnels connects Kashmir valley with India.
(vi) Railway lines through gaps in the Viridhya Satpura hills and in Western Ghats have provided easy connections between the North and South.
(vii) Ganga as a waterway has acted as a unifying agent right from U.P. to West Bengal. Thus each means of transport has played its own role in a unified system of transport.
The inland navigation in India is not important as most of the rivers are not suitable for navigational purposes. Only 14,500 km of inland waterways are navigable. Navigation is carried on in Ganga and Brahmaputra, and in the lower reaches of the Godavari and Krishna, the Buckingham Canal in Tamil Nadu and Andhrà Pradesh and West Coast Canal of Kerala provide navigation.

Shipping Transport in India

Shipping plays a crucial role in a country like India with a coastline of 7516 km long. In 2001 there were 122 shipping companies. Of these about 40 were engaged in international trade. In 2001 net operative tonnage consisted of 546 ships with a gross registered tonnage of about 69,00,000. The ships belong to both government and private companies and operate almost on all routes around the world. There are 12 major ports, 25 intermediate ports and 156 minor ports. A major port handle traffic of 10 lath tonnes every year and is handled by a trust. A minor port handles less than 10 lath tonnes. Mumbai is a major port, Pondicherry is a minor port.

(A) Ports on the Western coast

(1) Kandla. This port is located at the head of Rann of Kutch. It is a new port and is expected to take the place of Karachi. it is a natural and safe harbour. It is a tidal port. It is connected with a vast and rich hinterland of North West India. It is located on the Suez Canal Route.

(2) Mumbai. Mumbai occupies central position on the west coast of India. It stands on an island connected with the mainland. It is the only natural deep water harbour of India. It is connected with Europe through Suez Canal. It has rich productive hinterland of black cotton soil region. A hinterland is an area which serves a port for its international trade. For example, Mumbai port is connected well with its hinterland of states of Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Punjab and Haryana. It is also known as the “Gateway of India.” A new port at Nhava Sheva near Mumbai has been developed.

(3) Marmugao. This port lies on the west coast in Goa. it is deep natural harbour. Its hinterland includes Goa, Maharashtra and Karnataka.

(4) Cochin. Cochin lies on the Malabar coast in Kerala. It is called the queen of the Arabian Sea. It is a safe, deep and natural harbour. It is located on the route to Australia and the Far East. It is important naval centre and a shipyard.

A new naval port of Karwar is being developed on Canara coast. New Mangalore is a major port of Karnataka. It exports iron ore from Kudremukh.

(B) Ports on the Eastern coast

(5) Kolkata. It is a river port on the mouth of Hooghly about 120 km inland. It has a rich hinterland of productive agricultural Ganges-Brahmaputra delta and Chota Nagpur region rich in minerals. It is located on the route to Japan and U.S.A. It is a tidal port. A new port at Haldia is being developed to share the burdens of Kolkata.

(6) Vishakhapatnam. It is a new major port on the east coast of India. It lies mid way between Kolkata and Chennai. it is a well protected natural harbour enclosed by hard rocks of Dolphin nose. It is connected with a mining region of iron ore, coal and manganese.

(7) Paradeep. It is a new major port on the Orissa coast. It is a deep natural port. It has a vast hinterland of Orissa with minerals, forest products and agricultural resources. It exports iron ore to Japan.

(8) Chennai. It is an artificial man-made port on the east coast. Two concrete walls (Break waters) have been built to provide shelter. Its hinterland includes Tamil Nadu and Karnataka. It is a rich agricultural region. Tuticorin is a new major port on S.E. Coast of Tamil Nadu.
Comparison between a harbour and a port.

Importance of Shipping

Shipping and navy are both important for India,s progress and defence. From almost negligible presence at the time of Independence, India today ranks 17th in world shipping tonnage.

Development of shipping is crucial for development of economic fisheries zone. India has to develop coastal and deep sea fishing. India’s rich oil field, Mumbai High lies in the offshore region. Some other minerals are also found in this area. India’s foreign trade is carried by ships through Indian Ocean.

Railways in India

The first railway line was constructed between Mumbai and Thana in the year 1853. It was only 34 km long. Railways are the chief means of transport in India.

Main characteristics:
(1) Indian railways have a total route length of 62,915 km.
(2) It is the largest railway system in Asia and the fourth largest in the world.
(3) About 18 lath workers are engaged in Indian railways.
(4) Indian railways have about 7,517 locomotives, 40,000 passenger service vehicles and 245,000 wagon linking 7100 stations spread over 13 lath km.
(5) These railways carried 4585 million passengers and 457 million tonnes freight in the year 2000.
(6) Super fast trains and fast goods trains have been introduced for container service. Metro railways have been started in Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai.
(7) About 80% of freight traffic and 70% of passenger traffic is carried by railways.
(8) Most of the railways are found in the level Gangetic plain. About 50% of the total length of Railway in India is found in northern India. The Northern Railway is the longest railway with a length of 10,977 kilometres. Many physical and economic factors are responsible for it.
(i) Northern plain is a level plain with low altitude. It is best suited for construction of railway.
(ii) Due to dense population big towns have developed which have led to high density of railway.
(iii) The intensive development of agriculture and industries has promoted the construction of railway lines.
(iv) It is essential to connect Mumbai and Kolkata with their hinterlands of northern plain.
(9) Railways have not been extensively developed in Jammu and Kashmir, N.E. India, Western Ghats, Chhota Nagpur Plateau and Thar Desert (Rajasthan).
(10) In Southern India, construction of railways is retarded due to hilly areas and rivers.
(11) Indian railways have 56 steam, 4,651 diesel locomotives, 2,810 electric locomotives. The electric trains run over a distance of 14000 km. Indian Railways run on three gauges:
(i) Broad gauge—i.68 metres wide (49%)
(ii) Metre gauge—i metre wide (44%)
(iii) Narrow gauge—0.68 metre wide (7%)

Railway zones. Indian railways have been organised into 9 different zones.

Northern Railways
Eastern Railways
N. E. Railways
N.E. Frontier Railways
S.E. Railways
Central Railways
S.C. Railways
Southern Railways
Western Railways

The tenth zone, North-Central with headquarters at Allahabad, was created on August 28, 1996. The eleventh zone, with headquarters at Hajipur in Bihar, came into being on September 8, 1996. The twelfth zone, North-Western, with headquarters at Jaipur, came into being on October
17, 1996. The thirteenth zone, South Western with headquarters at Bangalore, came into being on November 1, 1996. These are the four of the six new zones being carved out of the existing nine zones.

Thrust Areas of Indian Railway

a) The existing capacity be utilized maximum.
b) Fast traffic be promoted.
c) Computerization be introduced.
d) The use of diesel and electric engines be increased. It provides fast, neat and clean travel.
e) Faster passenger trains be provided.
f) Container service for long routes be introduced.
g) The local trains, like Metro Railways in Kolkata and Delhi can be usefully utilized to link with the networks.


Road is a major medium of land transport. It is more important than rail transport in many ways. Roads have preceded railways. Roads can be easily built and maintained. Roads can be built in higher slopes and high mountains while it is difficult to construct railways over rough terrain. Roads can be made to pass through forests and deserts.

Roads are suitable for transporting light perishable goods. Goods can be delivered right to the doorsteps of consumers. Railways carry heavy goods to long distances and then trucks may be used to carry these goods to the local market. Thus roads are the cheapest means of transport for short distances. Loading, unloading and trans-shipment from one gauge to another make delay in the transportation of goods by railways. While road transport is away from such problems.

Degradation of Environment due to Industrial Development and Measures to Control it

Degradation of Environment due to Industrial Development

The degradation of environment is one of the major problems of industrial development. Until very recently consideration for environment was considered as restricting the economic growth but now only after a decade of environment planning it is considered as an aid to industrial development. This means that industrial development and environment planning are complementary. They almost go band in hand. Some of the major problems of environment degradation on account of industrial development are the following:

(i) Problem of Resources: Many of the resources are used wastefully. In a developing country like India many resources are used at between 35% to 50% efficiency. For example lot of coal was wasted only just 5 years back. The same wastes are today used for making chemicals and fertilisers. The power plants have an efficiency of just 50% to 60%. A lot of coal, petrol and gas as well as human resources can be saved by raising the efficiency level.

(ii) Pollution and Wastes: Industries produce all types of wastes in liquid, solid and gaseous forms. These wastes are the chief cause of pollution. The chiorofluorocarbons (CFCS) which come from_aerosol sprays, nuclear weapons, refrigerators etc. have caused a hole in ozone layer of atmosphere. This hole is leading to increased amount of harmful ultraviolet radiation reaching the earth. Water pollution, atmospheric pollution, noise pollution etc. are all a result of industrialisation resulting in environment degradation.

(iii) Degradation of ecosystems : Man created land forms on account of large scale mining and housing, deforestation to make way for industries, modifications in vegetation and slopes, entry of chemicals in natural ecosystems, mechanisation of farming have produced artificial ecosystems leading to their degradation. This is resulting in spread of many diseases and extinction of flora and fauna.

Measures to Control Degradation

The struggle of people and their governments against environment degradation is best described today by conservation. Almost all the conservation measures are interlinked and interdependent. For example, increasing vegetation cover or afforestation can directly benefit industry• through cleaner environment, increasing ground water resources for industrial use and making many raw materials available. However, some of the specific measures taken in this field to controlling environmental degradation are the following:

(a) Mineral conservation : Minerals are the chief raw materials of industry. Minerals can be conserved through improving efficiency. in processing of minerals, reducing wastes, recycling of minerals like iron (scrap), aluminium, waste paper and many other resources, improving mining methods arid finding substitutes. Government of India has also taken many steps towards conservation of minerals. Some of the important steps taken include remote-sensing of mineral reserves, mapping including scientific development of mineral resources under the overall direction of Indian Bureau of Mines.

(b) Pollution Control : The Government of India has taken many measures under the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 for management and control of hazardous substances. Many individual legislations have been passed by the Parliament. Municipal Solid Wastes (Management and Handling) Rules and Hazardous Wastes Rules pertaining to industry have also been formulated and many rules are already being implemented. The Water and Air Acts are major instruments for control of water and air pollution.

(c) Legal Measures and Public Awareness : The Government is taking many regulatory and legal measures like for example environment clearance for setting up new industries as well as their location; putting into force Ozone Depleting Substances (Regulation and Control) Rules 2000; prohibiting commercial lending agencies and banks to extend financial assistance or loans to industries using outdated technologies or ODS-technologies. Many awards like Rajiv Gandhi Environment Award for Clean Technology, Pitamber Pant National Environment Fellowship Award, Indira Gandhi Paryavaran Puraskar and other public awareness measures are also being taken to prevent environment degradation by industries.

Major Industrial Regions in India

Spatial Distribution of Industries

The spatial distribution involves specific location and general distribution of industry. We have already studied the factors that affect location of industries. When analysing these factors it will be observed that geographic area or space has two chief aspects in the case of industry Firstly, major industries all over the world have come to be concentrated in certain regions or geographic areas. The concentration of industries in regions is mainly on account of availability of raw materials and markets around. Inter-relations, interactions and interdependence produce many benefits including on account of influence of transport. Industrial regions can be regarded as functional units which improve the prospects of industry. Secondly, aspect of spatial distribution is concerned with location of specific industries. We will study some major industries later in this chapter. Here we will first examine major industrial regions of India.

Major Industrial Regions

Indias major industries are concentrated in five main industrial regions — Northern Region, North Eastern Region, Southern Region, Western Region and Central Region.

(a) Northern Industrial Region: It includes Ganga and Yamuna river valley and industries located in Delhi, Kanpur, Varanasi, Allahabad, Lucknow, Ludhiana, Sonepat, Amritsar. Important industries located in this region are cotton and silk textiles, fertilizers, bicycle, sports goods, sugar, chemicals, leather, wool and rubber goods. In recent years car and watch assembly and manufacturing have also developed.

(b) North-Eastern Industrial Region: This zone includes the famous Damodar Valley Industrial belt including Hoogly and Kolkata.
Main industries developed in this region include locomotive, iron and steel, chemicals, aluminium, metallurgical, cement, fertilizers, glass, silk and paper. The region offers many advantages of availability of raw material, coal, hydel power, cheap and abundant skilled labour. The region has also excellent rail, road and transport facilities.

(c) Western Industrial Region : It included the Maharashtra and Gujarat industrial belt. Among important industries include cotton textiles, fertilizers, petrochemicals, oil refineries, cement. Famous industrial centres are Mumbai, Pune, Vadadora, Ahmedabad, Surat, Bhavanagar, Pimpri, Kalyan and a number ‘of other recently developed areas.
The region also offers excellent rail, road, air and shipping transport facilities. There is also large networks of pipelines carrying gas and even petroleum.

(d) Southern Region : The industrial centres of Bangalore, Chennai, Madurai, Coimbatore, Hyderabad are included in this region. Chief industries include iron and steel, like at Badravali and Salem,, telephone, machine tools, computer software, railway coaches, automobiles, watches, electricals and electronics. In this belt climate, port facilities including raw materials are chief factors responsible for location of industries on this region.

(e) Central Industrial Region : Its chief advantage is its location adjacent to North-Eastern Industrial Region. The iron and steel industry at Bhilai, other industries at Gwalior, Jabalpur, Bhopal, Indore and Nagpur are included in this region. Among important industries include cement, paper, iron and steel, heavy chemicals, textiles and automobiles.

Types of Industries in India

Industries can be classified into many different types. Some of the important criteria for the classification of industries include the following:

1) On the basis of strength and size of labour force employed

a) Large Scale Industries : These industries employ a large number of labour force and have also, huge investment in plant and machinery. Iron and steel, heavy engineering, cotton, jute, textiles can be placed in this category.

(b) Medium Scale : These industries employ neither too large a labour force nor too small. Many electrical, electronics, radio, television, computer hardware and even cloth mills fall in this category

(c) Small Scale Industries : According to registration criteria, small scale industry has a capital investment of less than Rs. 1 crore. In India about 80% of all manufacturing units can be classified as small scale industries.
Small scale industries also include cottage and village industries like handloom sector.

(2) On the Basis of Raw Material used and Finished Goods

(a) Heavy Industries: These industries use raw materials in bulk, examples are iron and steel, heavy engineering, ship building etc.

(b) Light Industries : These industries use light raw materials and also produce light finished good. Light engineering and electronics, watches etc. are included in this category.

(3) On the Basis of Ownership

(a) Private Sector Industries : Industries owned by private individual or groups are private sector industries. These are chiefly of two types — Proprietary and Partnership concern and corporate units registered under the company law. Corporate units are very much like public sector units though owned by individuals under share-holding pattern.

(b) Public Sector Industries: These industries are owned by the state or its agencies. Examples are Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, Indian Petrochemicals Limited. Now many public sector industries are being privatised under the scheme of Disinvestment in Public Sector Units.

(c) Joint Sector: These industries are jointly owned by the government and private forms. Oil India Limited is an example of joint sector enterprise.

(d) Cooperative Sector: Industries under this category are run by cooperatives like those of farmers, milk producers etc. Many Sugar Mills, Mother Dairy etc. are examples of cooperative sector industries.

(4) On the Basis of Raw Materials

(a) Agro-Based Industries : These industries chiefly use raw materials supplied by agricultural sector. Examples are cotton textiles, sugar, silk, jute, fruit preservation etc.

(b) Mineral Based Industries : Minerals like iron, mica, bauxite, cement form their basic raw material for manufacture of goods. Iron and Steel Industry, Aluminium Industry are examples.

Other categories include forest based industries, pastoral based (hides, skins, animal bones etc.) industries etc. Classification of industries is also done on the basis of size of capital or labour force, for example we say capital intensive or labour-intensive industry.